Michael Paluszek is President of Princeton Satellite Systems. He graduated from MIT with a degree in electrical engineering in 1976 and followed that with an Engineer's degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from MIT in 1979. He worked at MIT for a year as a research engineer then worked at Draper Laboratory for 6 years on GN&C for human space missions. He worked at GE Astro Space from 1986 to 1992 on a variety of satellite projects including GPS IIR, Inmarsat 3 and Mars Observer. In 1992 he founded Princeton Satellite Systems.
One concept Gateway may be in a polar orbit with an apolune of 70,000 km and perilune of 3,000 km. One concept is for the lander and Orion to meet at Gateway. Our alternative is for Artemis to stay in a low lunar orbit and be met there by Orion, the cargo transfer vehicle and the tanker. There are many orbit maneuver sequences that will get us from Gateway to our 15 km altitude orbit. A simple one is shown below. We first lower apogee to 3,000 km we then do a Hohmann transfer from the 3,000 km orbit to the 1753 km orbit (that is 15 km altitude). The maneuver to lower apogee is shown below.
The delta-v for the first maneuver is 0.49 km/s and for the Hohmann transfer is 0.39 km/s.
While in low lunar orbit in between landings the lunar lander will do high resolution photo surveys of the surface. These will be used to train the neural network for landing navigation.
NASA would like a crew to land on the moon by 2024.
We didn’t have time to write a proposal, but here is our design. We propose a single stage vehicle, that can land from and return to a 15 km circular orbit. It uses 2 Blue Origins BE-3U engines that use cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen. An Orion capsule houses the astronauts. The Orion would take astronauts to and from Gateway and to and from the Earth. Lockheed Martin is building the Orion spacecraft. The European Space Agency is building the service module. A separate transport would bring fuel and payload to the lander. In the future, the lander could be refueled from lunar water.
The dimensions are in meters. The Orion is shown below. We purchased the model from https://hum3d.com.
The landing gear were scaled from the Apollo Lunar module.
It is interesting to compare its size with the Apollo Lunar Module. The Artemis is designed to fit into the 10 m SLS fairing. This a fully reusable lunar vehicle that can be refueled. It is designed for a long-term, sustainable, lunar base.
We use two toroidal hydrogen tanks and two spherical oxygen tanks. The cylinder on the outside is the solar array producing 34 kW of power. Of course, numerous details are omitted. We developed this model using our Spacecraft Control Toolbox. The design script will be available in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox Version 2019.1 due in mid-November.
Other elements of the lander were designed for different purposes. The GN&C system is based on our Army Precision Attitude Control System.
Our control system is based on a robotic lander we designed some time ago. We have full C++ code for the control and guidance system.
The architecture for Earth/Moon transportation system is shown below. Eventually, a Direct Fusion Drive freighter would be the main way of moving cargo between Earth orbit, lunar orbit and Gateway. The lander would remain in lunar orbit. Humans would go to the moon using fast orbital transfer, much like during Apollo.
Our next blog post will show how we get from Gateway to and from our 15 km starting orbit. A subsequent post will demonstrate our lunar landing guidance that uses a neural network for navigation based on images of the surface. Using it for landing would require higher resolution images than we have today, but short of building a lunar GPS system, it might be more cost-effective to have a satellite assembling images from low lunar orbit.
We will also update this blog post from time to time. Stay tuned!
I attended the 2019 International Workshop on Satellite Constellations and Formation Flying at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland. https://www.strath.ac.uk/engineering/iwscff/ It was a very interesting and enjoyable conference. The papers included a mix of papers from faculty, students and engineers in industry. Authors were from around in the world including Bangladesh, Brazil, Japan, China, Europe, Canada and the United States. Topics included control, orbit determination, constellation design and even the legal aspects of space operations.
Keynote speakers included Professor Simone d’Amico who talked about the work done in Stanford’s laboratories, Prof. Moriba Jah, who discussed large constellations and Dr. Timothy Maclay of OneWeb who discussed large commercial constellations such as the soon to fly OneWeb constellation.
Three students were awarded cash prizes for their papers. All of the student papers were good so it must have been a difficult decision for the judges.
My paper on cluster control was the first paper of the meeting. Other control papers focused on orbit estimation, use of environmental forces for control and even using electrostatic actuators.
The workshop reception was at the Glasgow City Chambers that has the largest marble staircase in Western Europe.
The conference dinner was the Glasgow Science Centre. Dinner was preceded by a planetarium show. After dinner, the attendees could wander around the museum that included many fun interactive exhibits.
Princeton Fusion Systems is at the ARPA-E Summit in Denver at the Gaylord Resort. The poster shows the excellent results from our recent experiments. We also have a poster about our NIAC research. We are at Booth 100. Please come by!
I grew up during the Apollo era but what really inspired me to get involved in the space business was Stanley Kubrick’s movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. My dad took me and my brother to see it at the Cinerama theater in New York City the year it was released. It was a mind-blowing experience. When I went to MIT, my intent was to go into aerospace engineering but the collapse of the aerospace industry after the cancellation of Apollo and the ending of the Vietnam war motivated me to switch to electrical engineering, which is Course VI at MIT. There I would begin my exploration of the technologies that were found in 2001.
The first exposure was Professor Patrick Winston’s course 6.034 or “Artificial Intelligence.” Researchers at MIT were working to make HAL 9000 a reality. The course covered topics such as “Blocks World,” an AI system that could reason in the context of a world consisting of nothing but a pile of blocks. We learned Lisp, an early AI language. I did my research project on AI chess, an appropriate topic as I had written an end-game chess program in high school and HAL defeats Frank Poole in chess onboard the Discovery.
After getting my SB (bachelors degree at MIT) I went to graduate school in Aernoautics and Astronautics, Course XVI, at MIT. My first spacecraft experience was working with Professor John McCarthy to design a small space station that could be lifted in one Space Shuttle launch. Professor McCarthy was a manager on the Apollo program before the Apollo I fire. He had a phenomenal amount of practical experience,
While I was at MIT fellow graduate student Dave Akin was working on space suits and astronaut in space work. MIT pioneered that idea that astronauts could do construction in space, something seen in the Discovery scenes in the movie.
After getting my Engineer of Aeronautics and Astronautics, I spent a year working on thrusters at MIT before going to the Draper Laboratory where I worked on the Space Shuttle. I learned the Shuttle programming language, HAL/S. It was named after Hal Laning. At least that is the official story. The Space Shuttle was NASA’s first approximation of the Orion Space Clipper. I also worked on several early NASA space station designs including Space Station Freedom. I looked into a space design design with rotating crew quarters though not a big wheel like Space Station V.
I then moved to New Jersey to work at GE Astro Space. I was there for 6 years where I worked on GPS IIR, Inmarsat 3 and several other spacecraft. That is where I gained experience of a wide variety of autonomous spacecraft.
I started Princeton Satellite Systems in 1992. We’ve worked on many different projects and are currently pursuing just about every element in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Our biggest project at the moment is Direct Fusion Drive, a nuclear fusion propulsion system. These are equivalent to the engines on the Discovery. We are teaming with Sam Cohen at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory on this technology and have a ARPA-E grant to demonstrate ion heating, a necessary first step on the path to a fusion engine. Discovery I’s engines were Cavradyne engines – gaseous core nuclear thermal engines. Many years later NASA recreated Discovery I using hypothetical fusion engines.
Under IR&D we are developing Space Rapid Transit (SRT), a two stage to orbit launch vehicle that takes off and lands horizontally. As it happens, the Orion spacecraft was two stage to orbit with a boost from an electromagnetic launcher. SRT has an air-breathing first stage and an LH2/LO2 propelled second stage. Orion used nuclear thermal engines for both stages – something that would not be popular today. The picture below was generated by a 2001 fan based on Arthur C. Clarke’s novel. SRT is right below it.
We also did a conceptual design of a reusable lunar lander with a nuclear thermal engine for shuttling to and from lunar orbit. It would use hydrogen from lunar water. It has a Lockheed Martin Orion spacecraft on top. The entire vehicle is one piece. This is much like the Aries 1B in 2001.
We are also advancing AI technology with or work on deep learning. We have a new book coming out on the subject. We’ve also written and flown autonomous control systems for three different missions. The software can’t play chess, but does function without humans in the loop, something that HAL would have liked!
We’ve added some new tools to the Aircraft Control Toolbox for our upcoming 2019 release. The first is a new GUI for creating aircraft models. You import a Wavefront OBJ files and then you point and click to define leading edges, wing areas, engine locations and so forth. This makes it easier to import the geometric data. The GUI is shown below. It illuminates the view that you need to use for a given geometric element in red. The inertia matrix is generated from the mass and the surface geometry.
A new simulation function was added to use the data from this GUI. It has a flat Earth aircraft model with a plugins architecture. You can add your own lift, drag and thrust models or use the simple built-in models. It is much simpler than AC.m which is designed to be a comprehensive high-fidelity simulation. We’ve added a new animation GUI to show you the results of your simulations.
We expect 2019.1 to be available in June. You can get a demo with previews of the new functions now.
Princeton Fusion Systems, a fully owned subsidiary of Princeton Satellite Systems, has been awarded $1.25 Million from ARPA-E for Low-Radioactivity Compact Fusion Devices
Today ARPA-E announced announced that PFS has received a competitive $1.25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), as part of the Energy cohort of OPEN 2018.
Princeton Fusion Systems seeks to develop technologies to enable future commercial fusion power. Our team’s concept is a small, clean, and portable design based on a field-reversed-configuration plasma. The concept uses an innovative method called odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) to drive electrical current and heat the plasma to fusion temperatures. Under this award, the team will pursue improved electron and ion temperatures through RMF, as well as identify the modeling needed to elucidate the key heating and loss mechanisms for the fusion reactor concept. The team’s ultimate power plant design seeks a very small footprint for a compact, potentially transportable, distributed energy resource that is fully dispatchable and emissions-free.
PFS received this competitive award from ARPA-E’s OPEN 2018 program, in which teams develop innovative technologies to transform the nation’s energy system. OPEN solicitations are an open call to scientists and engineers for technologies across the entire scope of ARPA-E’s energy mission.
This work complements three NASA grants for the development of this technology for nuclear fusion rockets for human and robotic space exploration. This includes the NASA Phase II NIAC Grant, “Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander,” and a NASA Phase II STTR, “Superconducting Coils for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines“, and a Phase I STTR, “High Efficiency RF Heating for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines.”. These contracts build on over 20 years of collaborative work between Princeton Fusion Systems and the Princeton University Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This unique nuclear fusion concept was invented by Dr. Samuel Cohen of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Princeton Satellite Systems was founded by Mr. Michael Paluszek in 1992 to develop advanced space and terrestrial technology. It has developed a wide range of space and terrestrial technology including advanced spacecraft control and navigation systems, formation flying systems and terrestrial energy systems including solar, wind and nuclear fusion.