About Michael Paluszek

Michael Paluszek is President of Princeton Satellite Systems. He graduated from MIT with a degree in electrical engineering in 1976 and followed that with an Engineer's degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from MIT in 1979. He worked at MIT for a year as a research engineer then worked at Draper Laboratory for 6 years on GN&C for human space missions. He worked at GE Astro Space from 1986 to 1992 on a variety of satellite projects including GPS IIR, Inmarsat 3 and Mars Observer. In 1992 he founded Princeton Satellite Systems.

The New Space Age Conference

Charles Swanson of PPPL and Mike Paluszek of Princeton Satellite Systems attended the MIT New Space Age Conference at MIT on March 11. It was held on the 7th floor of building E52 at MIT.


Princeton Satellite Systems was a sponsor of the event. It was a great event! There were a number of interesting presentations including one on the history of the Iridium Program. Iridium was almost ready to deorbit the constellation when an investor cobbled together enough money to keep it flying and then found a new market in places without any cell phone service. They are now  launching Iridium-Next. After the disappearance of the Malaysian Flight 370, the airlines realized that they need to know the position of all planes in real-time. Iridium offered a hosted payload to do that and that payload is effectively funding the new satellites. The speaker showed us a image from their satellite showing the tracks of aircraft.

Professor Loeb gave an overview of the Starshot project to accelerate small sails to 20% of the speed of light. He discussed some of the challenges of the program. The speed was selected specifically so that the probes would reach Alpha-Centauri during the lifespan of the investigators.

Boeing gave a talk on composite structures. The speaker, Dr. Naveed Hussain, VP of Aeromechanics Technology, The Boeing Company, showed how established companies are innovating.

Spaceflight gave a talk on their launch services. We plan to work with them to launch our test satellites.

At lunch Charles and I sat with a group of students from Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department at Princeton University. We were joined by Mark Jernigan, Associate Director, NASA/JSC Human Health and Performance Directorate. We talked with him about the challenges of human spaceflight to Mars.

Charles and I were on the propulsion panel. Charles gave a spectacular overview of the plasma physics of our nuclear fusion engine. I filled in the DFD system details. We had a few questions from the audience.

Our 2017 extern, Eric Hinterman, gave a great talk on the oxygen from carbon dioxide project that will be tested on Mars. It would produce the oxidizer for return missions thus saving money. My wife, Marilyn, took pictures of the panel.


At the reception we were the only sponsor with a table display.


It was a great event! We look forward to attending next year!


MIT Externs at Princeton Satellite Systems

Every year during MIT’s Independent Activities Period in January MIT students can apply for externships at alumni’s places of business. Externships last from one to four weeks. Over 300 undergraduate and graduate students participate each year. As part of the program, MIT also helps students find housing with alumni who live near the businesses sponsoring the externship. Externships are a great opportunity to learn about different types of career opportunities. Students apply in September and go through a competitive selection process run by the MIT Externship office.

This year Princeton Satellite Systems had two externs, Tingxao (Charlotte) Sun, a sophomore in Aeronautics and Astronautics and Eric Hinterman, a first year graduate student in Aeronautics and Astronautics. Eric started January 9th and Charlotte on the 16th after spending time on the west coast visiting aerospace companies as part of an MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics trip. Eric took a break during the externship to attend a meeting at JPL on an MIT project.

Both externs worked on our Direct Fusion Drive research program to develop a space nuclear fusion propulsion system. An artist’s conception is shown below.

Second Unit-render-1d

This project is currently funded by NASA under a NIAC grant. Eric worked primarily on the Brayton cycle heat recovery system that turns waste energy from bremsstrahlung radiation, synchrotron radiation and heat from the plasma into power that drives the rotating magnetic field (RMF) heating system. He produced a complete design and sized the system. He also wrote several MATLAB functions to analyze the system. Charlotte worked on the design of the superconducting coil support structure making good use of her Unified Engineering course skills! Here is a picture of Charlotte and Eric in front of the Princeton Field Reversed Configuration Model 2 test machine (PFRC-2) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Dr. Samuel Cohen, inventor of PFRC, is showing them the machine.


Both Charlotte and Eric made important contributions to our project! We enjoyed having them at Princeton Satellite Systems and wish them the best of luck in their future endeavors!

MATLAB Machine Learning Book is Now Available

Apress just published our new book, “MATLAB Machine Learning”


written by Michael Paluszek and Stephanie Thomas. The book covers a wide variety of topics related to machine learning including neural nets and decision trees. It also includes topics from automatic control including Kalman Filters and adaptive control. The book has many examples including autonomous driving, number identification and adaptive control of aircraft. Here is a view of a neural net tool included with the book.


Full source code is available. For more information go to MATLAB Machine Learning.

Princeton Satellite Systems Awarded Nuclear Fusion Patent in Japan

Princeton Satellite Systems was awarded its first patent in Japan, “Method to produce high specific impulse and moderate thrust from a fusion-powered rocket engine”. This technology was licensed from Princeton University’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is for a compact, low-neutron, nuclear fusion reactor that can be used as a rocket engine or as a power generator. The reactor can be built in sizes from 1 to 10 MW. A typical robotic spacecraft would use two engines. A human mission to Mars or the outer planet might use six 5 MW engines.

Here is the Japanese patent certificate.



US-Japan Compact Toroid Workshop 2016

Mike Paluszek of Princeton Systems, Sam Cohen of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Charles Swanson also of PPPL attended the US – Japan Compact Toroid 2016 meeting in Irvine California this past August.

We presented papers related to Sam’s Princeton Field Reversed Configuration nuclear fusion reactor research program. Charles presented, “Extracting electron energy distributions from PFRC X-ray spectra,” Sam presented “Long pulse operation of the PFRC-2 device” and Mike presented, “Fusion-enabled Pluto orbiter and lander”.

Here are the workshop attendees.


It was fascinating to listen to all of the papers at the workshop! John Santarius, who has done cutting edge work on space propulsion and small fusion reactors presented his talk, “Aspects of Advanced Fuel FRC Fusion Reactors.” He gave a very informative overview of small fusion reactors and advanced fusion fuel technology. Thomas McGuire discussed the Lockheed Martin research on small reactors. There were several presentations by Tri-Alpha Energy scientists on their beam heated FRC.

We look forward to the next Compact Toroid Workshop!

Celebrate Princeton Invention 2016

Michael Paluszek and Gary Pajer of Princeton Satellite Systems attended the Celebrate Princeton Invention (CPI) 2016 reception in the Chancellor Green Rotunda on the university campus.

Our research on small nuclear fusion reactors is part of a team effort with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) so our display was part of the PPPL booth.


The poster describes our project to design a nuclear fusion propelled robotic spacecraft to go into orbit around Pluto. It would get there in about 3 years and deploy a lander. While in orbit it would return HDTV quality images and massive amounts of data through its high power communications links.  The short duration of the trip would save almost $300M in operations costs. It would be launched from Low Earth Orbit, saving even more money!

The propulsion system could also be used for a Neptune Orbiter, missions to Jupiter’s icy moons, an Enceladus lander, asteroid deflection and human exploration of Mars. More down-to-earth applications include powering bases in Antarctica and driving the propulsion systems for unmanned underwater vehicles.

Our reactor uses helium-3 as a fuel. As the supplies of helium-3 grow, possibly from Canada’s CANDU reactors, helium gas from natural gas extraction or mining the moon, the reactor could be used to generate power everywhere. It is the ideal supplement to wind and solar power.

Gary Pajer and I talked with many attendees at CPI. Here is Gary talking with a visitor to our booth.


Visitors to our booth included researchers from Schlumberger, ExxonMobil and from around the campus. It was great fun talking to everyone and seeing all the interesting research done at Princeton University!

NEA Scout Toolbox

Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout is a exciting new NASA mission to map an asteroid and achieve several technological firsts, including being the first CubeSat to reach an asteroid and demonstrate CubeSat technologies in deep space. http://www.nasa.gov/content/nea-scout


NEA Scout will perform a survey of an asteroid using a CubeSat and solar sail propulsion and gather a wide range of scientific data. NEA Scout will be launched on the first Space Launch System (SLS) launch.

NASA asked Princeton Satellite Systems to develop custom MATLAB software based on the Princeton Satellite Systems Spacecraft Control Toolbox and Solar Sail Module to assist with this mission. We just delivered our first software release to NASA!

The NEA Scout module provides MATLAB scripts that simulate the spacecraft. One, TrajectorySimulation, simulates just the trajectory. It includes a solar sail force model and uses the JPL Ephemerides to compute the gravitational forces on the sail. In addition it can use a 150 x 150 Lunar Gravity model during lunar flybys. It also simulates the orbit dynamics of the target asteroid.

AttitudeSimulation expands on this script. It adds attitude, power and thermal dynamics to the model. A full Attitude Control System (ACS) is included. This ACS uses reaction wheels and optionally cold gas thrusters for control. Momentum unloading can be done with the thrusters our using NASA’s Active Mass Translation (AMT) system that moves one part of the CubeSat relative to the other to adjust the center-of-mass so that it aligns with the system center-of-pressure or adds a slight offset to unload momentum. The control system reads command lists that allows the ACS to perform attitude maneuvers, do orbit changes with thrusters and for the user to change parameters during simulations. It adds the rotational dynamics of the asteroid.

The dynamics of the AMT can be modeled either with a lag on the position or a full multi-body model. Dynamics of the reaction wheels, including a friction model, are included in the simulation. The following are a few figures from a typical simulation.

The first figure shows reaction wheel torques during attitude maneuvers. The ACS uses quaternions as its attitude reference. You can mix reaction wheels and thrusters or use either by themselves for attitude control.


This GUI shows the current command and allows you to control the simulation.


The Figure GUI lists all figures generated by the simulation. It makes it easy to find plots when you have many, as you do in the attitude simulation.


The Telemetry GUI gives you telemetry from the ACS system. You can easily add more data to the telemetry GUI which can have multiple pages.


This figure shows solar sail pointing during simulations.


The following figure shows the spacecraft with its solar sail deployed. This is built in the CAD script using the  Spacecraft Control Toolbox CAD functions. The sail is 83 meters square.


The sail is huge but the core spacecraft would sit comfortably on your desk.

If you want more information about our products or our customization services you can email us directly by clicking  Mission Simulation Tools.

PPPL’s Young Women’s Conference

Princeton Satellite Systems had a booth at the PPPL’s Young Women’s Conference at Princeton University. Stephanie Thomas and Gary Pajer talked with students about our work in aerospace and energy.


Our booth featured a CubeSat frame designed by our mechanical engineers, a simulation of a lunar lander which could be controlled via a joystick, a copy of our new textbook MATLAB Recipes, and a Lego model of our Space Rapid Transit space plane.

The girls were divided into three large groups that rotated through the various attractions available to them, so every hour or so the the attendees changed.   And every hour or so we had a fresh cohort of faces to meet.   Many of the girls  were very interested in what we are doing, and asked insightful questions.  For example, one girl asked “What happens when a satellite loses track of where it is?   Does it just get lost?”   Of course, that’s an important issue, one that we at PSS have spent considerable time addressing.

Some girls were very interested to learn about tiny CubeSats (“This isn’t a model, this is the actual size of the satellite!”), and still others were interested in horizontal launch possibilities as shown by the Lego model – i.e. most rockets launch vertically, but this could take off at any airport. Both of these are examples of systems that we regularly model using our commercial software packages.

For more information see the 2016 Young Womens’ Conference

Rutgers Engineering Honors Council Keynote Speaker Event

Mike Paluszek gave a talk on the Pluto Orbiter mission to the Rutgers Engineering Honors Council Keynote Speaker Event on March 22, 2016. The talk covered the mission and spacecraft and outlined the design process. Mike also discussed engineering careers and how to make the most of one’s own career.

From a member of the audience, “Just wanted to thank you once more for the wonderful talk you gave last Tuesday evening!”

This is a photo of the group.

A photo of Mike with the officers.


Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver

New functions in the Lunar Cube module in 2016.1 allow you to easily plan lunar insertion and orbit change maneuvers. In the following pictures you can see a lunar orbit insertion from a hyperbolic orbit. In all figures the lunar terrain is exaggerated by a factor of 10.


The same maneuver looking down on the orbit plane. The green arrows are the force vectors.


The following figure shows a two maneuver sequence. The first puts the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit. The second circularizes the orbit.