SolidWorks Interface in SCT 2015.1

Version 2015.1 will have a new DXF file format exporter to export CAD models built in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox into SolidWorks. The following figure shows the Lunar Lander model in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox CAD window.

LunarLander

Exporting requires just two lines of code:

g = BuildCADModel( 'get model' );
ExportDXF(g,'LunarLander');

Rodger Stephens of Prism Engineering provided SolidWorks models from the DXF file. The file opened in SolidWorks with 7 parts creating an assembly called LunarLander-1.

SolidWorks1

Each part contains planes, sketches, and surfaces.

SolidWorks2

The Spacecraft Control Toolbox has always had DXF import capability but now it can export in a format that is supported by most CAD packages. This will speed the process of going from conceptual designs in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox to detailed designs in SolidWorks and other CAD packages.

Patched Conics

Patched conics are a useful approximation when dealing with orbits that are under the influence of multiple planets or moons. The idea is that only one planet’s or moon’s gravitational field is active at any one time. For example, at the start of a mission from Earth orbit to the Moon, we assume that only the Earth’s gravity acts on the spacecraft. For each planet or moon we define a sphere of influence where that body’s gravity is greater than all other sources. In the Earth/Moon system the Moon’s sphere of influence extends to about 66,000 km from the moon.

A new function in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox Release 2015.1 is PatchedConicPlanner.m. It allows you to explore trajectories in a two-body system. The following figure shows the trajectory of the spacecraft and the orbit of the Moon in the Earth-centered frame. The trajectories assume that the spacecraft is only under the influence of the Earth. The spacecraft is in an elliptical orbit designed to have its apogee just behind the Moon.

PCC1

The next figure shows the spacecraft in the Moon centered frame. The blue line is the trajectory of the spacecraft assuming that the Moon was not there. The green line is the hyperbolic trajectory of the spacecraft starting from the patch point computed assuming the Earth’s gravity had no influence on the trajectory. Notice the sharp turn due to the Moon’s gravity. The function returns the Moon-centered orbital elements along with other useful quantities.

PCC2

The following shows a closeup of the trajectory. The miss distance, as expected, is less for the hyperbolic trajectory. The plot clearly shows a good place for a delta-v maneuver to put the spacecraft into lunar orbit.

PCC3

This function allows you quickly explore the effect of different patch points and to try different spacecraft transfer orbits. While a “high-fidelity” analysis requires numerical orbit propagation that includes the Moon, Sun and Earth’s gravitational fields, PatchedConicPlanner.m, let’s you generate good starting trajectories for mission planning.

Moon Lander Design

Our last post showed the mission planning script for our lunar lander. The next step was to layout the lander. We did this using the BuildCADModel function in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox. The propulsion system is designed to meet the requirements of the mission plan. We use six 1 N HPGP thrusters for attitude control and one 220 N thruster for orbit maneuvers and landing. We have two HPGP tanks for the fuel. There are two cameras. One is used as a star camera for attitude determination and navigation and the second, which is articulated, is used for optical navigation, descent navigation and science. The IMU and C&DH box can bee seen in the drawing.

LunarCAD

The solar array has two degrees-of-freedom articulation. The high gain antenna is also articulated. We adapted the landing legs from the Apollo Lunar Module. The thruster layout is shown in the following figure and is done using the ThrusterLayout function in the toolbox.

LunarThruster

We get full 6 degree-of-freedom attitude control and z-axis velocity change control. We use the 220 N engine as the primary engine for landing but can also use four of the 1 N thrusters for fine terminal control.

We are working on the science payload for the mission. One experiment will be to mine helium-3 from the surface. Helium-3 would be a fuel for advanced nuclear fusion power plants and nuclear fusion propulsion systems.

Landing on the Moon

There is a lot of interest in lunar landing missions for both scientific exploration and commercial purposes. Commercial applications might include mining helium-3 for future nuclear fusion power plants on earth and mining water for rocket fuel.

The Spacecraft Control Toolbox makes it easy to do preliminary planning for lunar missions. In this blog we present a single MATLAB script that takes a spacecraft from a low Earth parking orbit to the lunar surface! Here is the final segment, the descent to the moon.

MoonMission_03

We ended up with a 30 kg dry mass for a spacecraft that can use an ECAPS 220 N HPGP thruster for delta-v.

The published script can be found here:

Lunar Mission Planning as a published MATLAB script

You can also send us an email to find out more about our Lunar Mission Design Tools.

Spacecraft CAD Design in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox

AutoDesk Inventor and SolidWorks are powerful software packages for the computer-aided design of spacecraft. Ultimately you need to use one of those packages for the mechanical design of your satellite, but what about the preliminary design phase when you are still determining what components you even need? The CAD software in the Spacecraft Control Toolbox can provide you with a valuable tool to do your conceptual layouts and early trade studies, and the same model can be used as the basis for disturbance analysis in later design phases.

A CAD model in SCT is built in a script which allows you to build your models algorithmically. You can call design functions, use for loops and revision-control your source code. For example, within the script you can do an eclipse analysis and compute the battery capacity. This number can generate the volume of your batteries which you can then use to size your spacecraft.

The function BuildCADModel provides the model-building interface. The CreateComponent function is used to generate the individual components using parameter pairs as arguments. Components are grouped into bodies to allow for rotation and articulation. A GUI displays your finished model and allows you to visualize it in 3D. You then store your finished models as mat-files. Our disturbance model uses every triangle in your model for disturbance analysis.

The example figure shows a solar sail design, with the spacecraft bus in the middle. BuildCADModel allows you to group components into subsystems as on the left-hand side, which can then be highlighted using transparency.

Subsystem

The figure below shows the BuildCADModel GUI which allows you to verify the body and component properties.BuildCADModel-Vehicle

There are many examples of spacecraft models in the SCT to help you get started, and a lengthy chapter in the User’s Guide discussing the finer points of component location, orientation, and physical properties such as drag and optical coefficients. Your CAD model essentially functions as a database for your entire spacecraft model!

Why Use Princeton Satellite Systems’ MATLAB Toolboxes?

Almost all aerospace organizations have extensive libraries of software for simulation, design and analysis. Why then should they use our MATLAB toolboxes?

I’ve been working in the aerospace business since 1979. My experience includes:

  1. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Dynamics Analysis
  2. The GPS IIR control system design
  3. The Inmarsat 3 control system design
  4. The GGS Polar Platform control system design
  5. The Mars Observer delta-V control system
  6. The Indostar-1 control system
  7. The ATDRS momentum management system
  8. The PRISMA formation flying safe mode guidance

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Optical Navigation for Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits

Optical navigation, using the Earth’s chord width and angles between nadir and stars, is an alternative to GPS based navigation for autonomous spacecraft. The Optical Navigation System, developed under a NASA contract, is well suited for this application.

In the Spacecraft Control Toolbox, we provide an easy-to-use demo script in the 2014.1 release that shows you how to implement optical navigation. The system uses Unscented Kalman Filters (also known as sigma point filters) with non-linear dynamics and measurement models.

This demo uses our new UKF functions shown below:

ukf.t = t;
ukf = UKFPredict( ukf );
ukf = UKFUpdate( ukf );

ukf is a data structure that includes all filter information. Measurements are passed as data structures to UKFUpdate which have pointers to the measurement functions. In this way, any type of measurement can be used in the filter and introduced at any time.

The following plots show some results from the script. The first shows the orbit and the estimated orbit which are essentially the same.

OpNavSim

The second shows the position errors. Of course, actual errors would depend on the accuracy of the sensors, particularly the Earth sensor. Great care needs to be taken when setting up the UKF parameters. As you can see, the largest errors are at perigee and if the UKF parameters are not set properly, the filter might think a hyperbolic orbit was a valid solution!

OpNavErrors

Check out our Spacecraft Control Toolbox page for more information on the 2014.1 release! More information about optical navigation can be found on our Deep Space Navigation page.

Simulating Magnetic Hysteresis Damping

CubeSats have caused a renewed interest in magnetic control of satellites, and passive hysteresis damping in particular. Modeling actual hysteresis rods on a satellite is not trivial, and generally requires empirical data on the properties of the rods selected. Our newest CubeSat simulation demonstrates damping using rods in LEO. A permanent magnet is modeled using a constant dipole moment, and we expect the satellite to align with the magnetic field and damp. We evaluate the results by plotting the angle between the dipole and the Earth’s magnetic field and the body rates.

First, let’s verify the magnetic hysteresis model in the toolbox using the bulk material properties in orbit. We use a dipole model of the Earth’s magnetic field. The nice hysteresis curves below confirms that we are computing the derivatives of the magnetic field correctly in the body frame, which requires careful accounting of rotating coordinates. Also we stay within the saturation limits which means our magnetic flux derivatives are correct too.

Hysteresis curves from simulating magnetic hysteresis in orbit

Hysteresis curves from simulating magnetic hysteresis in orbit

We will assume the rods are 1 mm radius and 95 mm length, with rods placed perpendicular to each other and the permanent magnet. Three rods are used per axis. The apparent rod parameters are taken from the literature. The actual rods will not reach saturation while in orbit, so we will see a minor loop.

Minor loops from damping rods

Minor loops from damping rods using apparent properties

The rods produce only a small amount of damping per orbit, so we have to run for many orbits or days to see significant damping – in some passive satellites, the total time allotted for stabilization is two months! In this case we test the rods’ ability to damp the torque induced by turning on a torque rod with a dipole of 1 AM2 and allowing the CubeSat to align itself with the magnetic field, starting from LVLH pointing.

Damping in LEO using hysteresis rods

Damping in LEO using hysteresis rods

Simulating the rods is time-intensive, with a timestep of about 4 seconds required – which makes a simulation of several days on orbit take several minutes of computation. Once performance of the rods has been verified, a simple damping factor can be substituted.

This new simulation along with the functions for hysteresis rod dynamics will be in the new version of our CubeSat Toolbox, due for release in June!

References:

  1. F. Santoni and M. Zelli, “Passive magnetic attitude stabilization of the UNISAT-4 micro satellite”, Acta Astronautica,65 (2009) pp. 792-803
  2. J. Tellinen, “A Simple Scalar Model for Magnetic Hysteresis”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 34, No. 4, July 1998
  3. T. Flatley and D. Henretty, “A Magnetic Hysteresis Model”, N95-27801 (NASA Technical Repoets Server), 1995

DFD for Europa Exploration

Europa-luna

The Galileo moons of the Jovian system are of great interest for future space exploration due to the belief that three of the four of the largest moons (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) contain water (in liquid and/or ice form). So far the eight spacecraft that have visited the vicinity of Jupiter are Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini, and most recently New Horizons. NASA has ambitions to send another probe to further study Europa.

At Princeton Satellite Systems, in collaboration with Dr. Samuel Cohen at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, we’ve been working on the Direct Fusion Drive (DFD) engine, an advanced technology for space propulsion and power generation. Using the DFD, we have simulated two potential missions to Europa, an orbiter mission and a lander mission. The simulations were completed in MATLAB using functions contained within our Spacecraft Control Toolbox.

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6U CubeSat to Mars

We’ve been working on Asteroid Prospector, a 6U CubeSat to explore Near Earth Objects, for the past two years. It is quite a challenge to pack all the hardware into a 6U frame. Here is our latest design:

APExploded

CAD

The nadir face has both an Optical Navigation System camera and a JPL designed robot arm. The arm is used to grapple the asteroid and get samples. The camera is used both for interplanetary navigation and close maneuvering near the asteroid.

Our fuel load only allows for one way missions but could be increased for sample return missions by adding another xenon tank, making it more of a 12U CubeSat. With that in mind, we wondered if we could do a Mars orbital mission with our 6U. It turns out it is possible! We would start in a GPS orbit, carried there by one of the many GPS launches. The spacecraft would spiral out of Earth orbit and perform a Hohmann transfer to Mars. Even though we are using a low-thrust ion engine, the burn duration is a small fraction of the Hohmann ellipse time making a Hohmann transfer a good approximation. We then spiral into Mars orbit for the science mission as seen in a VisualCommander simulation.

SimSummary

The low cost of the 6U mission makes it possible to send several spacecraft to Mars, each with its own instrument. This has the added benefit of reducing program risk as the loss of one spacecraft would not end the mission. Many challenges remain, including making the electronics sufficiently radiation hard for the interplanetary and Mars orbit environments. The lifetime of the mechanical components, such as reaction wheels, must also be long enough to last for the duration of the mission.

We’ll keep you posted in future blogs on our progress! Stay tuned!